Friday, May 29, 2020
Chapter 1 Introduction to Home Automation HOME AUTOMATION What is automation? When you have automatic control on different things and functions atYour home then we can say that you have home automation .This automation can be via aRemote or wired .simply things can be control according to your wish in history differentMethod and techniques are use to implement the home automation.Why people day by day are inclined towards home automation .there are lots of reason behindThis but the main reason is that you dont need to rebuild your home, you dont need to moveThe walls of home, it is easy to implement and without investing lot of money you can install itAt your home .a middle class person can afford the expense of home automation. ItsInstallation is very simple and easy. And a very y less time is required to automate the whole Home with different available products.Home automation gives a facility to user that he can control the things according to his wish inVery easier way .home automation may include different task like home security, auto maticOn/off of lighting, control of sound system and etc .In a home automation a user can control the Things from any place in the home.Also sometime a user himself can implement home automation in his home via differentProducts those are easily available in the market.. Plus points of home automation There is a reason that why till now most people keep on using home automation facility .theMain reason is that they got much convenience in using home automation .as in modern age aPerson want to do lot of work .also with the lavish style of life people are going to be lazy andThey want much convenience in work of their life .so to get convenience they need homeAutomation in their daily life.Let take an example of first home automation application .the first home automation exampleWas the TV remote control .before this application you have to face lot of difficulties like you?Have to sit near the television to change the channels and to control the volume .also you haveTo wake up at a particular time to turn on your TV set. Now with the help of a single remoteControl you can do all this task easily .how much convenience you can get with a single homeAutomation product .you can observe from the above example.Human desire never comes to an end .so the invention of single remote control was not theUltimate goal .it was the initialization of home automation .different home automation taskWere keep on adding in home automation like heater, washing machine, control of lights, warm your mattress before you enter the room, and automation heating and cooling of yourWashroom water before the few minutes earlier of your wake up alarm. IS IT CONVENIENCE OR NEED? Convenience is not only the reason for home automation .there can be other reason for homeAutomation like NEED of using home automation .there can different need .one need may beThe security, it is also convenience but it fall under the category of need .before automation inHome security you have to use different security devices and guards but now with the help ofSimple and cheap home security you can provide home security.MISCILANEOUS BENEFITS Thieves and unknown persons can be monitored via motion sensor and you can get updateFrom the remote position that who is trying to enter to your home .also different door openingAnd locking systems are used at the particular door so that if some unauthorized person triesTo enter the home then a security alarm may be passed to the higher authorities. This alert mayBe send to you via email, mobile text message or a pre recorded call.Also when you come to your home late at night and you feel fear to enter in the dark home .butWith the help of h ome automation you can turn on your home lights when you are near to yourHome via a message or call .the pre assigned light will automatically turn on when you willEnter to your home and you will not feel any any more fear. Also this can be done that when youJust unlock the main door of your home then with this all the lights turn off automatically .itWorks like a mobile profile .At different occasion you switch on different mobile profiles .AsWhen you are in your meeting with boos then you just turn on your silent profile with a singleButton .all other related settings got automatically selected .In similar way with the help ofSingle button, message, email or a call you can get your desired lighting control.Automatic opening and closing of main door of home also fall under the category of need .ifYou dont have this facility then you have to hire a security guard for 24 hours at the door, whoWill open and close the door when your car will give horn .but with the help of simple homeA utomation you can achieve this task .when your car comes in front of main gate, a cameraThere recognize that is this car is allowed to enter the home, if yes then the system there willAutomatically open the door and after you enter the home the door will be automatically close. Safety Safety is another point due to which people use home automation .for example if there is waterIn your home basement due to heavy rain at your home then with the help of homeAutomation you can receive an alert message for excess of water in the basement.Also if the temperature of any particular room or location of your home falls beyond theNormal limits then a high/low temperature alert activated .in case of fire and smoke at anyPlace at the home this home automation application may be very successful and heavy loss canBe avoided.Home automation charge cost but this cost looks no more that the benefits you got from theHome automation .for example you are sleeping and there is fire or high temperature in anyArea of your home then imagine that if you dont get the alert then what happen if youKeep on sleeping .might be possible that you yourself caught in the fire .a person can enjoy theHome safety at a very low cost.Home automation is little bit technical but it is not difficult to impl ement .when you haveDifferent home automated products then you need the methods to implement these products.There different method and techniques for implementation of home automation .one methodMay be superior than the other .there are different methods of home automation .and toMethod of implementation will guide you that how much cost you are required .by using efficientMethods you can save lot of money .before implementing home automation to your home, youMust analyze that which method can be suitable and efficient for you according to your needs, cost, choice and life style.In mostly home automation setup a remote is used .and this remote work only for the systemThat are installed at different home appliances .with the help of this single remote you haveComplete control on the automated applications at your home .with the help of this singleRemote control you can control the lighting system, cooling and heating system, safety system, security system, irrigation controlling and all other related home appliances .this remote canWork from any place in the home without any delay .within seconds you can implement youDesired task.In movies you observe the many home automated things that look different to implement inOur life .but as the technology is advance now so that automation can be applied at home withThe help of gadgets and new technology features of devices. IT IS A PART OF HOME ITEMS Peoples views about home automation are different .some say that it is wastage of money andThere is no need for it but some say that it is a part of your home items .they use to say that it isA part of home like other things in home, like other home appliances .so they dont think it 0asSeparate thing and consider it a need for a complete home .while other think that it is a luxuryAnd there is no much need for it,If you buy new and different things on regular basis then there would the best way that youShould buy or invest your money in different home automated things cause in homeAutomation newer and newer technologies are evolving day by day and there is no limit forHome automation .simply it depends on your pocket that how much you can invest.According to need and convenience of different people there are different levels for homeAutomation .but the basic and necessary home automation must include the following things, that can be different categories for home automation Security Security always remain a big issue in home automation .most of the work have been doneRegarding this .in old home automation system there were not include the security alarm .youHave to implement security separately .but now security alarm are the built in feature of theHome automation .old security alarms turn on when someone break the window glass or try toCross the wall or try to unlock the door .when security alarm turn on then the thief haveEnough time to escape .before you reach there the thief had run away.Now with the help of built in and automatic alarm you dont need to search for the thief in yourHome .you can just press the alert button if you feel any fear .then if there would be thief inPart of your home then the lights of that place will automatically turn on and if the thief wouldBe in the room or inside the home then the main door will automatically locked so that heCouldnt ran .according to police that a good lighting arrangement can help in protection ofHome from th iefs .in your home where you want to turn on or off light automatically you justNeed to install a module there and your desired task can be easily achieved.Mostly people install home automation system for money safety and high alert alarms areInstalled near the money safe .but modern home automation system not only consider themoney safety but also the human safety .In fact the safety is much important than the moneyAnd your property .with the help of home automation you can insure the safety and security ofYou and your whole family .with the help of single button you can easily do this. CONVENIENCE As this is the age of technology .everyone is enjoying the benefits of modern technology .soWhy you will not want? By using the home automation you can enjoy the muchConvenience. Your complete home control is in a single remote control .and with this singleRemote you can control every automated thing at your home .you dont need to do much hardWork .in fact with the latest technology people are going to be lazy .and also you yourself wantTo be relaxing.You daily waste much or your time in on/off you home and street lights, waste time in checkingThe locks of all doors before you sleep .you have to be alerted regarding gas and electricHeater. You cant get the second chance for leakage of gas .in this entire how much you have to beAttentive and alert .a sharp memory and hard work is required for this .but with the help ofSingle remote you can save lot of mind work and avoid lot of hard work .if everything would beAutomated then just imagine how it would be relaxing and enjoying. And ever yone likes to use that single remote.Also it looks very attractive and pleasant to have home automation at your home .every guestMay impress with the unique and advance features of home automation that you have installedAt your home .complete home is in your hand via a single remote control .you can do everyThing with the help of this remote like turn on/off light, your TV, sound system and safety andSecurity system.In previous home automation system compatibility was the major issue .but now a device isCompatible with lot of other devices .so you have great flexibility.Home automation can improve your life style and standard .after having the completeKnowledge through about home automation, you should buy the home automation devices soThat you could enjoy the automation according to your wish and desire.Now there are lot off companies in the market that provide home automation and home safety.you just needs to call the vendor and they will install the home automation at your home . firstlyYou have to analyze that where you need home automation at your home then install and thenCall for company.You are the best person who can think that where you need automation at your home. EXTRA COMFORT In this modern age people are adopting different technologies for relax and comfort. They useTo buy different products as they want to make their life simple and much easier .due to thisReason they are also inclined to install home automation system at their homes. It is the homeAutomation due to which they have complete control on every electronic device at their home.as there is many electronic devices at your home like air conditioner, heater, and cooler, microwave oven, sound system, etc .every one want to control all these electronics devicesWith as much easiness as he can.Home automation provides you the height of easiness and comfort .for example if you busy inWatching your TV program .let suppose that you are watching cricket match and you dont wantTo be disturbed and you forgot to switch off the other room lights .then with the help ofWireless home automation you can easily do this .now modern home automation system haveTouch screen instead of remote control.Also exciting fe ature of home automation is that now days you can do automation remotely.it is not necessary that you must be present at the home .if you are at your office and you wantTo turn on/off your home lights then you can do it with help of internet or simply with the helpOf your small touch phone .you just need to access the your home automation control consoleVia a website then you can do what you want to do .with this facility you can make setting ofEverything before you reach the home .for example you can play song of your own choice, make setting of light according to your wish and need, get your air conditioner on so that whenYou reach home; your room will automatically cool.In fact you are virtually present at your home .now you dont have to pay lot off for forgettingThings .and you can avoid lot of losses.You can watch and observe every person at your home with the help of cameras that are linkedWith internet .you just excess this facility by just surfing the website .with the help of thisFeature you can enjoy the completely safety from the outsiders and thief.Today the home automation system is very good, comfortable and reliable .these cant beEasily trapped by anyone .previously this was a main drawback of the home automationSystems EASY TO IMPLEMENT Home automation system is very easy and there is not difficulties in implementing this .it can be Implement with very less cost and no extra loss for its installation is required. SAVING OF ENERGY By using home automation you can save lot of energy .if you use automatic control of lights in Your home then you can easily turn off light in the morning via a simple remote control or simply You can configure that these lights should be turn on for a specific duration .and your home Automation system will automatically switch on or off the lights according to the given schedule. INFRARED TECHNOLOGY As it was discussed earlier that the TV remote was the first home automation application .andInfrared technology was used in it .so infrared technology put the basic for wireless homeAutomation .as this technology is very cheap so it can be easily used by the low budget personsIf there are advantages of using infrared then there are also disadvantages of infrared .one ofIts disadvantage is that it is a very short range and it always require a line of sight connectionFor working .you cant control any infrared application while sitting in the other room.Mostly remote control in the current age have this infrared technology .they are still haveImportance and commonly used in daily life .they are wide use in mobile, laptops and differentElectronics machines like automatic bar reader and different scanner at big departmentalStores.You can easily turn on/off a single light with infrared but what happen when you want to turnOn/off bulk of lights .do you need multiple infrared receivers for each light .as at the any holyOccasion or at marriage ceremony, you want to turn on all the light in the evening and want toTurn off all the light in the morning .how you can do this task with the help of infrared .in factInfrared can do this but this would be more costly .so you need to think advance and try toThink different way to implement task like the above task .so at that time there was a need ofNew technology. In door and out lighting is commonly controlled via remotely .some homeAutomation systems have thermostat facility that can easily achieve the automatic on and offLighting .in home automation system by pressing the single button multiple task can beAccomplished. X10 technology To improve the drawbacks of previous technologies the X10 technology came into the field.This is a very famous technology and their different products are available in the market .thisTechnology was mostly liked by the users. It was very popular technology at it age .let try toKnow what was this technology in actual.X10 is a communication technique that is used by the devices working on X10 technology.these devices implement the task given by the users .you can say that X10 is a language thatDifferent devices can understand .this act as a translator between the different devices thatDont know the same language for working .one feature of it is that it compatible with relatedDevices .to implement X10 you dont need to work hard and you dont need to break, cut andMove your home walls .X10 is just work with the electrical outlets and wiring that are alreadyInstalled at your home .you dont need to use hard wire for implementation of X10 .so it is alsoCheap and affordable and can be easily implemented .you just need to buy the X10 elementsThat are easily available in the market .due to its simplicity and affordability it became veryPopular in the world .its communication tool installation is very simple .you just need to installIts transmitter into the outlet in the wall .and similarly you need to install a receiver at theOutlet in the wall. Both transmitter and receiver are connected with a device when aTransmitter sends any signal then the device receives the signal and tries to know that what isThis signal in actual .and then pass it to the receiver and the desired task is can be performedEasily .256 different units can be operate with a simple X10 unit .so now you can easily turn on/off your light at wedding or holy gathering easily .a unique operation is performed with aSingle assigned address but a single address can be assigned to two different things so that aSame task can be implemented on the both things or devices .for example you want to turn offYour stre et lights then you can assign the same address to all the streets lights .one plus pointOf X10 is that its all products are compatible with each other there is no compatibility issue.CHAPTER 2:Related Work and Hardware Description 2.1 Literature Review : We discussed some previous techniques used for home automation. There features and drawbacks. 2.1.2 Home Automation using Bluetooth: It is a chip technology enabling us to communicate with a lot of devices. It is a popular way of short range communication. By enhancing this technology we can use it to automate homes. It employs the 2.4Ghz unlicensed band and has data rate up to 720Kbps. Its range is usually 10 meters but can be increased to 100 meter by using higher powered antenna. Its only draw back Is it short range.. ZIGBEE BLUETOOTH RANGE : 100m-1500m RANGE :10m DATA RATE : 20 To 250 kbps DATA RATE : 720Kbps ENERGY : Multi-year battery life ENERGY : Multi-day battery life Table 1: zigbee and bluetooth comparison 2.1.3 Home Automation using GSM: GSM stands for Global system for mobile communication. As it works in cells there are different types of cells. and each cell cover different areas. cell radius depend on antenna gain, power, height. GSM has three types of services.* Tele Services:* Calls, short message service .tele-fax.* Bearer services* asynchronous and synchronous data* Supplementary services* call forwarding ,call barring* usually in home automation we send commands with mobile in form of SMS.The drawbacks of this techniques are service dependent, its possible that because of congestion On the network your might SMS delivered late. Or you get a delayed SMS from home mounted module about the current status of the different household equipment. 2.2 DESIGN ARCHITECHTURE 2.2.1 Command Unit 2.2.2 Control Unit 2.3 COMPONENT SELECTION 2.3.1 Zigbee Module (XBee Pro) We use XBee Pro as a transceiver module because it consumes very low power and has long range and nominal data rate .more information on this module is given in hard ware overview chapter. 2.3.2 Microcontroller (Atmega 16) We use ATMEGA16 because it is a low power and has greater SRAM and EEPROM memory And it can be easily interfaced with zigbee and other components.More information is available in Hardware review chapter. 2.3.3 MAX 232 It is used to convert a signal from TTL logic to RS232 level.It is used to communicate with computer.More detai is given in hardware review chapter. Summary Chapter 3: Hardware and Software Methodlogy 3.1 Using Atmega Timers: 3.1.1Timers with LED The timer code enable the number of led after the time given by the user.In the timer code PORTB is set as an output. The timer counter control register(TCCR1B) is used to set the timerThe clock source with eight prescaler and the normal mode is used in the timer. Timer counter register (TCNT1) is used to initialize the timer.TIMSK is used to enable overflow interrupt and SREG enables the global interrupt.The similar task is also done without timer. 3.1.2 Timers with LEDs ,Push button and Buzzer Figure 3: Timers With Leds ,Push button ,Buzzer In this code we simply USE A push button to enable the timer and used a BUZZER. The buzzer will on with the led but buzzer will off after 500 ms and led remains on. 3.2 LCD INTERFACING WITH ATMEGA 16: The PORTD and PORTB is set as a output. The comand_set function is used to give the necessary instruction to the LCD. The data_set function is used to send data to the LCD through PORTB. The display function is used to latch the data. 3.3 KEYPAD INTERFACING WITH ATMEGA 16: A 4*4 keypad is interfaced with the microcontroller ATMEGA 16 to select the fixed load and variable load and to give the time after which the load has to on. The PORTA is used as you can see in the figure. 3.4 Selection Of A Fixed Load We select a fixed load 2 from keypad. Figure : Selection Of A Fixed Load Load 2 is selected. Now it is on. The status of load 1 is on. The status of load 2 is off. 3.4 Accessing EEPROM In EEPROM_WRITE function the EEPROM is being checked that, either it is being written previously or not. Then the address has passed to EEPROM and after this the data has passed to EEPROM. The EEMWE bit has set to logic one an after this the EEWE bit has set to logic one. 3.5 Using ADC In ADC analog voltage is converted into dc voltage with 10 bit resolution. In ADMUX register of ADC the voltage reference is set, The ADC left adjust result is set to logic zero and channel is selected. In ADCSRA the ADC enabled bit and ADC start conversion bit are set to logic one. When ADC conversion completes bit 4 is set. All the codes are given in the cd. SUMMARY Chapter 4: SOFTWARE OVERVIEW The following software we use in our project* CodeVisionAVR C Compiler* AVR Studio 4 debugger * Proteus Version (6.9) 4.1 Code VisionAVR CodeVisionAVR is the c compiler that is used to program the ATMEL microcontrollers. It is very easy to use. You can develop applications for embedded systems by using it. 4.1.2 Features of CodeVisionAVR The CodeVisionAVR C Compiler has following features:* CodeVisionAVR is compatible with Atmel and AVR Studio Debugger * A new project is created by using it* Compilation of the C Code* Editing of the C Code* It runs on the operating system i.e. Windows,XP,7,VistaIt is the new microcontrollers with high memory. It is the only compiler through which we can programmed the ATMEL microcontrollers. 4.1.3 Creating a new file A new file can be created by clicking on the toolbar button.After this save the file. 4.1.4 Creating a new project Click on the toolbar button . Now click on the No button.Now save the project. 4.1.5 Configuring the project Select the atmega 16 and set it clock 4.0MHz. Choose the application as a program type. Now add the file under the project name. 4.2 AVR Studio 4 4.2.1 Features of AVR Studio 4 For proper controlling the Zigbee modules accurate codes and programming was needed. Wehave divided the our big task into smaller task. By doing so we easily wrote the code anddebugging was easy.AVR Studio 4 is the integrated development Environment (IDE) for developing 8-bit AVR applications in windows 2000/XP?VISTA/7 environments[2 ]The features that AVR Studio provides are supporting run control including source and instruction level stopping and memory,registers,breakpoints and watch variable and allow you to see what your code will do in reality with microcontroller. 4.3 Proteus The Proteus software is used to design the PCB and to do a microprocessor simulations.Its latest version is compatible with windows XP,VISTA,7. 4.3.1 Features of Proteus * 3D Board Visualization* Professional PCB layout module* Basic simulation* 2D Drawing with symbol library SUMMARY CHAPTER5 HARDWARE OVERVIEW ATMEGA 16: Overview: Atmega16 is low-power AVR enhanced RISC Architecturebased CMOS 8-bit microcontroller. By Executing instructions in a single clock cycle it achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz. Features: The ATmega16 has16K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash Program memory which Consists of 512 bytes EEPROM, 1K byte SRAM.It has 32 general purpose I/O lines, 32 General purpose working registers. It has On-chip Debugging support and programming And has three Timer/Counters having Internal and External Interrupts. For serial commun-Ication it has programmable USART .For analog to digital conversion it has 8-channel, 10-bit ADC with optional differential input stage with programmable gain. It has a Wat-Chdog Timer having internal Oscillator and it can be programmed. Pin configuration: Pin descriptions: port A We use Port A to serves as the analog inputs to the A/D Converter.It also serves as an 8-bit bi-Directional I/O port, if the A/D Converter is not used.Port pins can provide internal pull-up Resistors. When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low, they will Source current if the internal pull-up resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated whena reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Port B it is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors . The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Port C It is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors . The Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Port D Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors . The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As I nputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. RESET PIN : It Reset the Input. A low level on this pin will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running. AVCC : It is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the A/D Converter. It should always be externally connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. It should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter if the ADC is used. AREF : AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter. VCC Digital supply voltage.(Input voltage) GND ground. 5.2 XBEE PRO 5.2.1 Overview The XBee Pro module is designed to support low power,low cost wireless sensor networks.It requires minimal power and provide reliable communication between remote devices. 5.2.2 Features * Long Range: Indoor 100m and Outdoor 1500m.Transmit Power 100 mW(20 dBm)Receiver Sensitivity -100 dBm * Low Power: Tx Current 210 mA @ 3.3VRx Current 80 mA @ 3.3V* Advanced Networking Security Retries and Acknowledgement Self routingDirect Sequence Spread Spectrum * Easy to use No configuration required for out of box RF communicationAT and API command modes for configuring module parametersSmall form factorExtensive command set 5.2.3 Pin Description Some pins can be set as Analog Input, Digital Input, Digital Output, or Analog Output (PWM). The numbers of pins are up to seven channels of analog input, nine channels of digital I/O and two channels of PWM. Pin # Name Direction Description 1 VCC Power supply 2 DOUT Output UART Data Out 3 DIN / CONFIG Input UART Data In 4 DIO12 Either Digital I/O 12 5 RESET Input Module Reset (reset pulse must be at least 200 ns) 6 PWM0 / RSSI Output PWM Output 0 / RX Signal Strength Indicator 7 PWM1 Output PWM Output 1 8 [reserved] Do not connect 9 9 DTR / SLEEP_RQ / DI8 Either Pin Sleep Control Line or Digital I/O 8 10 GND Ground 11 AD4 / DIO4 Either Analog Input 4 or Digital I/O 4 12 12 CTS / DIO7 Either Clear-to-Send Flow Control or Digital I/O 7 13 ON / SLEEP Output Module Status Indicator 14 14 VREF Input Voltage Reference for A/D Inputs 15 Associate / AD5 / DIO5 Either Associated Indicator, Analog Input 5 or Digital I/O 5 16 RTS / AD6 / DIO6 Either Request-to-Send Flow Control, Analog Input 6 or Digital I/O 6 17 AD3 / DIO3 Either Analog Input 3 or Digital I/O 3 18 18 AD2 / DIO2 Either Analog Input 2 or Digital I/O 2 19 19 AD1 / DIO1 Either Analog Input 1 or Digital I/O 1 20 20 AD0 / DIO0 Either Analog Input 0 or Digital I/O 0 Table :XBee Pro pin description 5.3 MAX 232 5.3.1 Overview To do communication with microcontroller/microprocessor sometime one needs to step down the voltage of RS232 to voltage level of 3.3V or 5V.to accomplish this difficult task , a integrated chip is used that is called MAX232 Functionality: As previously stated that RS232 voltage are high and we need to step down that voltage . Its voltage range is -15V for high and +15V for low level .But as our circuitry consist of transistor and microcontroller and their transistor logic level (TTL) voltage range is oV to 5V .In modern TTL logic this voltage range has been reduced to 0V to 3..3V RS232 TTL Logic -15V to -3V +2V to +5V High +3V to +15V 0V to +0.8V Low There is much voltage difference between RS232 signal and TTL circuitry .We cant handle the -15V to -3V, negative RS232 signal with the simple computer logic.To do communication of RS232 the voltage must be reduced .MAX232 can reduce these voltage very easily MAX232 is connected with a simple circuitry that consists that consists of five capacitors and one MAX232 chip .this was the first integrated chip that can reduce the RS232 voltage level to TTL logic with the help of drivers and receivers . A input of 5V or 3.3V is given to it and it gives the desired output voltage (-10V to +10V) that is internally suitable for RS232 .Later on we have different latest versions of MAX232 like MAX232A.A simple circuitry is shown below for this we need low capacity capacitors as we used for MAX232 .There is no big difference between these two versions of MAX232 . MAX232 act as a driver or as a receiver .there are some drawback of MAX232 like it doesnt support serial or parallel conversion .it cant decode the serial communication signal .also it doesnt have the facility of marks and spaces at right time for serial communication . it only done the voltage level conversion .To accomplish the above mentioned task we need to connect an extra circuitry that can do serial To parallel conversion, decode the RS232 signal and can get the information at the right time.This task can be easily done with the help of UART that is available in Atmel microcontroller.The two receiver in MAX232 are used to convert voltage from serial communication to a convert from serial communication to a computer TTL logic .while the two drivers in MAX232 converts the voltage from computer TTL logic to RS232 .It is obvious from the above discussion that only two signals can be handle a single time .Normally two receivers are used for receivers(RX),while two drivers are used for Transmitter (TX).Some pin description information is given as follows 5.3.2 Pin Description Some pin description information is given as follows MAX232 PIN NO MAX232 PIN NAME SIGNAL VOLTAGE DB9 PIN 7 T2OUT RTS RS232 8 8 R2IN CTS RS232 7 9 R2OUT CTS TTL NILL 10 T2IN RTS TTL NILL 11 T1IN TX TTL NILL 12 R1OUT RX TTL NILL 13 R1IN TX RS232 3 14 T1OUT RX RS232 2 15 GND GND 0 5
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Fatima Hawkins Professor Amber Koeckritz CST 110 7 April 2016 Interpersonal Communication Film Analysis While any relationship can be difficult, romantic ones seem to be the most complicated. Interpersonal communication can be defined in many ways but is usually described as communication among those in a close relationship (Alberts 189). The Break Up is a perfect movie that will show examples of the definitions used. Individuals initiate relationships with those they see as attractive, while physical appearance is critical in forming a relationship so is a mental and the ability to communicate effectively. When initiating a potential romantic relationship flirting comes in many forms. Ambiguous flirting isnÃ¢â¬â¢t overt or obviousÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦She was attracted to his sense of humor and his assertiveness. The last primary force would be similarity meaning a degree to which people have the same values, interests, and background (Alberts 192). Think about a friend or spouse and their personalities, beliefs, and interests and think how much in common each have with on e another. A lack of communication between two people that occurs for a long period of time will most likely result in a huge confrontation or a complete separation of the relationship. Developing effective communication is essential to maintaining a healthy relationship (Alberts 202). Feeling like one person does more than the other can lead to unnecessary arguments if one feels the other isnÃ¢â¬â¢t portraying active participation in the relationship enhancement. Another theory that comes to mind is Equity theory which argues that rather than focusing purely on rewards and costs, people are more interested in achieving fairness (Alberts 194). This theory helps explain that both people who are under benefitted and those who are over benefitted may feel dissatisfied with their relationship (Alberts 195). To better explain under benefitted, an example would be when Brooke felt as though she was being taken granted when she screamed, Ã¢â¬Å"I worked hard all day cleaning, then cooking the meal and worked all day long, it would be nice if you said thank you and helped me with the dishes.Ã¢â¬ Show MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Nell And The Wilderness Of North Carolina Essay1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesabout the story of a young woman named Nell Kelty who has been isolated in the the wilderness of North Carolina since she was born. Growing up, the only people that Nell had contact with were her twin sister, who died when they were young, and her mother, whose death triggers the events of the film. As a result of her upbringing, NellÃ¢â¬â¢s interpersonal communication skills and language abilities are seriously underdeveloped. The young woman soon finds herself in the middle of a power struggle; Dr. JeromeRead MoreThe Break Up1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Effective communication is one of the most important things to maintain a happy relationship. Communication will help to create a better atmosphere and to know what are the interests, thoughts and feelings of your loved one. All romantic relationships need a lot of communications from both sides. The main factor is interpersonal communication, which couples are able to overlap environments and create a relationship. We reviewed the movie Ã¢â¬Å"The BreakupÃ¢â¬ and have found the concepts ofRead MoreAnalysis of the Life Aquatic1344 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAnalysis of The Life Aquatic Growing up without a father can be challenging for the mother, child and father combined; and yet it happens every day to hundreds of families year after year. Some of these relationships are reconciled, though many are left with no hope. 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Juno encompasses many issues involving interpersonal communication. This analysis will focusRead MoreThe Relationship Between Pornography and the American Culture961 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAn analysis of the relationship between pornography and the American culture reveals that the industry is blamed for dozens of social ills for the men of our society. Those ills also work to damage the women in several irreparable ways. Some of the damages to men include: illegal sexual behavior, illegal non-sexual behavior, callousness, sexual harassment, casual sex, and multiple sexual partners. The problems for the women directly involved in the industry are long term and long lasting, creating
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Symbolism is a major literary device that helps people see a book through symbols that often have a deeper meaning. A symbol is used to explain something in a different way, using images, objects, etc. instead of just saying it in words. As you search for a deeper meaning in a work of art or literature it can help you understand the authorÃâs intentions and the deeper significance of a work. In Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, symbols help reinforce the major themes of the book. Fire and flames have been used as symbols by many authors. Fire is representative of Montage. He was a fireman who made fires rather than put them out. He was around them all the time, whether it was around a campfire or burning down a house. Montag and fire wereÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The Hearth and The Salamander, the title of the first chapter, is another symbol. The hearth which provides warmth and comfort and the salamander which is believed to live in fire and not get burned contradict each ot her. One symbol shows the bad side of fire and the other shows the good side. The salamander was also a symbol on his firefighterÃâs badge: ÃâHe stood in the hall of his house putting on his badge with the orange salamander burning across it.Ãâ (19) It was also on the fire trucks he used to make the fires, ÃâThey sat there looking out the front of the great Salamander as they turned a corner and went silently on.Ãâ (40) Both of these sentences show that the fireman are proud of what the salamander represents, whether it means the same thing or something different, it was important to them. Mirrors are objects that reflect an image of something in front of it back to a viewer. In Fahrenheit 451 mirrors are also symbols of knowing who you are, reflecting upon yourself, and remembering. In the beginning of the novel Montag didnÃât see himself clearly. He saw a reflected image of himself on a piece of shiny glass, ÃâHe knew that when he returned to the firehouse, he might wink at himself, a minstrel man, burnt-corked, in the mirror.Ãâ (4) In a way he was cocky about himself, especially about being a fireman. By the end things changed. Montag finds out who he really is and comes to believe that he will see himself clearly eventually: Ãâ ÃâCome on now, weÃâre goingShow MoreRelatedSymbolism : Fahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury1144 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSymbolism is a technique that literary adds meaning to stories through the use of objects or events portrayed to represent something else. The reason behind the use of symbolism is eluding something s meaning with out sighting on the obvious. The in-depth analysis of the use of symbolism will feature in a short story-Fahrenheit 451 (Fenton). Fahrenheit 451 is a science fiction artistic work of literature that makes use of symbols in the reflection of the humanity journey revived in a dystopian societyRead MoreSymbolism Of Ray Bradbury s Fahrenheit 451868 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSymbolism in Fahrenheit 451 Ray Bradbury once stated, Ã¢â¬Å"I never consciously place symbolism in my writing. That would be a self-conscious exercise and self-consciousness is defeating to any creative act Ã¢â¬ ¦ During a lifetime, one saves up information which collects itself around centers in the mind; these automatically become symbols on a subliminal level and need only be summoned in the heat of writing.Ã¢â¬ (The Paris Review). BradburyÃ¢â¬â¢s may not have consciously placed symbolism in Fahrenheit 451,Read MoreFire Symbolism In Fahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury819 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesKira Masalaitis Mr. Frawley English 12 November 28 2017 What Does Fire Symbolize in Fahrenheit 451? Fire. The symbol of destruction, warmth, and renewal, is a prominent theme in the novel Fahrenheit 451, written by Ray Bradbury. Guy Montag, lives in a bleak, advanced United States where any and books have been made illegal and are replaced with entertainment and technology. The use of fire in the past was to give warmth and heat and has now been replaced for the use destruction and satisfactionRead MoreFahrenheit 451 Critical Essay1607 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Lintang Syuhada 13150024 Book Report 1 Fahrenheit 451 Critical Essay Human beings are naturally curious. We are always in search of better ideas, and new solutions to problems. One of a basic idea of Indonesia has been freedom of thinking and a free flow of ideas. But in some societies, governments try to keep their people ignorant. Usually, this is so governments can keep people under control and hold on to their power. In trying to keep people from the realities of the world, these oppressiveRead MoreFahrenheit 451 : The Burning Truth1149 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAbdulmalik Alnagadi Doctor Clare Little Humanities 142 Aug/7/2014 Ã¢â¬Å"Fahrenheit 451Ã¢â¬ : The Burning Truth Introduction Fahrenheit 451 is the actual temperature at which paper catches fire. The story by Ray Bradbury represents a social criticism that alarms individuals against the risk of suppressing their feelings due to restrictions. The fascinating story of Bradbury, Ã¢â¬ËFahrenheit 451Ã¢â¬â¢ is interestingly well constructed. It can be clearly recognized that the book broadens the idea of a short story thatRead MoreAuthority Individual1437 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn Fahrenheit 451, written by Ray Bradbury, authority is viewed as ruthless and the individual is portrayed as innocent. This is also emphasised in two related texts, Whose Life Is It Anyway? By Brian Clark, and Shawshank Redemption, directed by Frank Darabont. The themes of ruthlessness and innocence are exemplified throughout all three texts, through the concept of the authority and the individual. In Ray BradburyÃ¢â¬â¢s Fahrenheit 451, authority is depicted as ruthless. This is shown throughout theRead MoreFarenheit 451 : Author And Original Year Of Publication1705 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRittel English II HP, Period 2 08 May 2015 Honors English Novel Study Form Title: Fahrenheit 451 Author and Original Year of Publication: Bradbury, 1953 MLA citation: Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. New York: Ballantine Publishing, 1978. Print. Pertinent biographical information on author (must include a citation that matches the Works Cited page): Ray Bradbury was born in Waukegan, Illinois on August 22, 1920. Bradbury chose the writer path at the age of twelve and thirteen where he later discoveredRead MoreTechnology In Fahrenheit 451 And The Veldt By Ray Bradbury1370 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageseverything.Ã¢â¬ (Michael J Fox) However, in Fahrenheit 451 and Ã¢â¬Å"The VeldtÃ¢â¬ by Ray Bradbury this idea is aggressively rejected. The characters in BradburyÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Fahrenheit 451, live in a society where technology negatively impacts their family and relationships with each other. Similarly, the characters in BradburyÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, Ã¢â¬Å"The VeldtÃ¢â¬ are captivated by technology which has a huge toll on their family and relationships. Fahrenheit 451 and Ã¢â¬Å"The VeldtÃ¢â¬ by Ray Bradbury discusses the negative impact technologyRead MoreEssay on Fahrenheit 451 Sybolism of Fire646 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pag esThe Symbolism of Fire Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, is a novel filled with many symbols. The symbolism used in this novel varies from different animals to things in nature. One of the biggest symbols throughout the novel is fire. Fire has multiple meanings in Fahrenheit 451, and is usually symbolized as something to be feared. Throughout the novel, fire is something that people do not want, even though it can be so much more than a bad thing. Fire can represent knowledge and awareness, rebirthRead MoreAnalysis Of Fahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury1609 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThematic Essay on Fahrenheit 451 Imagine a world where your family connections have been replaced by a television screen. Everything you know is only what you have been told by others so that you have no opinion of your own. And if you dare start thinking for yourself, the consequences are dire. This situation seems unrealistic, but in Ray Bradbury s futuristic novel Fahrenheit 451, this is the way the world works. Bradbury creates a society filled with ignorance where even in the midst of all the
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theInternational Business Environment for Porter Theory. Answer: Introduction Porters diamond theory of national advantage is a significant theory that deals with the competitive advantages of countries. This theory states that countries can enhance their competitiveness by developing its different factors, which are available to them. It can be used to evaluate the ability of firm to operate the business in national market. In addition to this, it also analyzes the ability of national market to compete in global business market. It offers a model, which can assist in understanding the competitive position of the country in international competition. This theory mentions various factors for competitive advantage for different countries. These factors are such as firm strategy, structure and rivalry, factor endowments, demand conditions and related and supporting industries (Acs, Audretsch, Lehmann, and Licht, 2017). The major objective of this report is to discuss and apply Porters Diamond theory of National Advantage on Bank of Ireland. About the banking industry in Ireland, it can be stated that this industry is very significant for the development and stability of the countrys economy. Banking system in Ireland is very strong and it is regulated by different set of laws and regulations, which have united the directives of European Union. The major regulatory organization for Irish banking sector is the National Bank of Ireland that offers the rules and regulations for commercial banks, which are running their operations in Irish market (International Trade Administration, 2018). The Bank of Ireland is a commercial bank that is operated in Ireland and it is the part of traditional Irish Big Four banks. It is the type of public company that was founded in the year 1783 and headquartered in Dublin, Ireland. By offering premier banking operations and services, this bank occupies an exclusive position in the banking history of Ireland. It is the oldest bank in on-going banking operations in Ireland. Bank of Ireland is controlled by the Central Bank of Ireland. Currently, this organization has started to offer 365 online banking services, under which it offers flexibility and convenience to operate day to day banking on internet at any place and any time, which suits the customers (Bank of Ireland, 2018). Apart from this, the organization is offering both insurance and banking services to its domestic customers, who can be legal entities, natural persons, several institutions etc. As most of the Irish banks, Bank of Ireland also provides the services such as loan accounts, investment services, deposit accounts, current accounts, mortgage accounts etc. The below report discusses various factors, which contribute to the growth and success of Bank of Ireland in national and international industries. In this report, Porters National Diamond Theory of Competitive Advantage assists in understanding the ways how Bank of Ireland creates and sustains competitive advantage. It is the key to explain that what role the country plays in the success and processes of organization. By the use of this model, external competitive environment that assists organizations to determine the related strength and explain why banking industry in Ireland has become competitive and have regional and domestic advantages (Bessis, 2015). Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry Firm strategy, structure and rivalry are one of the factors of Porters Diamond Analysis that varies from nation to nation. Firm strategy, structure and rivalry are significant for the growth and success of a company. These strategies assist the organization in establishing new objectives, structure assists in managing the business activities and operations and rivalry assists in developing new and innovative ideas in companies (Cassidy, Barry and Egeraat, 2009). This factor of this framework is related to the way, in which a company is managed and organized, its corporate goals and the analysis of competition within its organizational culture. Moreover, it emphasizes on the conditions in a nation, which determine where the organization is operating its business. In the context of this factor, it can be stated that competitiveness breeds growth and success in an organization. The banking industry of Ireland is becoming highly competitive and it is very difficult to attain competitive advantage. There are various players, which are posing intense competition to Bank of Ireland. These players are such as National Irish Bank, Allied Irish Bank and Ulster Bank. By looking at the Irish Banking Industry, it can be stated that there is a tough rivalry among lots of banks. So, they are competing intensely and developing more unique and quality services (Barbosa, de Paula Rocha, and Salazar, 2015). As there are various competing banks, so people shift between banks easily because they are situated in same location, i.e. Dublin. If they are dissatisfied with the services of one bank, then they shift to other competitors in the similar sector. This is the major factor that drives the Bank of Ireland to become more competitive and innovative in the globa l market. The Bank of Ireland is doing so in the technologically sophisticated banking processes, which are not done by other rival organizations (Lazzarini, 2015). By the use of advanced and innovative technologies, Bank of Ireland offered 365 online services. These services of organization provide convenience and flexibility to practice its banking and account services. It has diversified its services in online banking, retail and commercial banking. To deal with the strong competition, Bank of Ireland is adopting various effective strategies such as; it has established a strong distribution network. Moreover, it has expanded its operations in Great Britain by the acquiring other banks. Marketing strategies of Bank of Ireland are very effective and it has enhanced its visibility through sponsoring sports events (Barney, 2014). Instead of strong competition, Bank of Ireland is able to gain higher competitive advantage by the use of effective strategies and structure. In this country, governme nt has developed strict rules and legislations for international players, which are attempting to enter into Irish banking industry. It helps this bank in attaining competitive advantage over international players also. Thus, it can be stated that direct competition is the major component that compels the Irish banking firms to work for enhancing their innovation and productivity in the industry. In Ireland, the companies are trying to be more innovative and qualitative due to competitive pressure from leading players in the industry (Gianiodis, Ettlie and Urbina, 2014). Factor Endowments It is another factor in the country that is related to the production and service factors of business, i.e. infrastructure and knowledge. According to this economic theory, factor endowment of a nation is commonly understood as amount of capital, labor, land and entrepreneurship, which a nation have and it can exploit for offering services (Wagner III and Hollenbeck, 2015). Factor conditions are significant aspects such as skilled and technology resources, which a nation develops. There are the factors to determine the competitiveness in particular sectors. These factors can be convened into important resources such as human resources, infrastructure and knowledge resources. In addition to this, the country includes the domestic buyers, which have demand and awareness for quality, innovative ad advanced products that can create global competitiveness for the organization (Byun, Lee, and Kim, 2016). In the Irish banking industry, the factor conditions are physical resources, human res ources, capital resources, knowledge resources and infrastructure. These are the most sparkling corner of Dublins diamond. Ireland country boasts talented, well-educated and native team. In addition to this, the Banks in the country are attracting experienced people from all over Europe, so that they can deliver the banking services effectively. Currently, Bank of Ireland has a strong workforce of more than 15000 employees. The company has trained its employees with different cultures and languages, so that they can expand their business in other countries and engage in international banking industry. In the country, there is a large presence of software companies that has provided different software to the banking companies. Ireland country has got a talented workforce and following the hard and long recession. Due to this, the talent and workforce of this company are comparatively cheaper than other neighboring countries. The country has good infrastructure and telecommunication f acilities, which assist this bank in gaining competitive advantage in this industry (Fainshmidt, Smith, and Judge, 2016). About Dublin, Ireland, it can be stated that country has enough supporting infrastructure that is required by the banks for operating their processes and connecting with their clients. Moreover, knowledge resources are also plentiful in the form of research and third level educational facilities. In the context of capital resources, Dublin has a strong venture capital community and the country has easy access to the government funding and debt financing. Apart from this, another component is the 45% decrease in the rental prices of offices, which have occurred in the city post-crash (Cullen, 2015). In Ireland, most of the banking firms reported that they are receiving non-financial support like marketing information, management development skills and business planning data from state agencies. Thus, it can be said that government and other state agencies are supporting the organizations in the development of factor conditions in the country. Irish telecommunication infrastructure is very beneficial for the competitive success of organization. Thus, the primary factors that are used by the Irish banking industry and Bank of Ireland and which may have a large impact on its competitiveness are capital resources, labor, talent, technological resources and infrastructure. By looking at the Irish scenario, it can be stated that factor conditions in Ireland are moderate for the Bank of Ireland and other firms in the banking industry, but they cannot be used solely (Kharub, and Sharma, 2017). Demand Conditions According to the Porters model of National Competitive Advantage, regional and local demand is the major root of national competitive advantage. Demand condition is the component that refers to the size and nature of customers of products and services in the domestic market. The demand conditions in the nation encourage the local companies to enhance their products and services offerings. If product and service demand will be more in the local market, then it can affect the customer demand in international market. In todays globalized environment where the local demand seems to be redundant, Porter recommends domestic demand can offer competitive advantage of an organization (Hallissey, 2016). An extensive local market can provide the major driver for a firm to upgrade and innovate before shifting to the international markets. Moreover, a country can adopt its culture and values to develop a market in foreign land. For most of the organizations, it seems that communication with the c ustomers in Ireland has been profitable and in this context regional demand conditions have some impact on indigenous banking sector. For instance, interaction with customers has assisted Bank of Ireland to develop innovative and improved products and services, which are specialized for targeted audiences. For Bank of Ireland, demand conditions are shown by the demand of traditional banking services such as; giving loans, accepting deposits etc. Number of accounts of bank customers and how better their related with the banks profits is important to be considered. In the case of Ireland market, there are different arguments, which can be made (Kelly, Brien, and Stuart, 2015). First, the home market in the country is very small to gain substantial economies of scale advantages and there is less incentives to make investment. However, it is improbable that Irish banking firms develop its banking services by keeping only Irish customers in mind. The country is emphasizing on expanding its demand conditions in United Kingdom that has given a closeness of the UK industry and historical connections between both countries (Floyd, Ardley, Summan, Rahman, and Vortelinos, 2016). This can be looked by the close link between the economy of UK and Ireland. This independence on UK industry has dropped intensely during past 35 years, but still UK is the largest customer of Ireland. By developing retail banking and online banking, Bank of Ireland is creating demand of its services in international market also. It is offering the services and facilities to international transfer of funds. Mobile banking of Bank of Ireland is designed to assist the customers to perform the banking in an effective and convenient manner (Baptista, and Oliveira, 2015). It has made international fund transfer very easy and secure by developi ng this facility. About Ireland, it is true that it is the home to some innovative, demanding and advanced customers, especially from banking and financial service industry. Therefore, the demand, which entices US and UK based companies to Ireland is not local but rather than regional. From the analysis of country, it can be stated that demand conditions solely are not important in Ireland, because they are dependent on other components of National Diamond theory like intense rivalry among local players. Related and Supporting Industries Related and supporting industries are the contributors for a nation, which drive the growth and success for other industries and overall economy. The growth and success of a market depends of the presence and contribution of suppliers and related industries in a region. In a country, the companies should involve the industries, which are considered as a major leader of a specific product or service. These suppliers and industries assist in reinforcing internationalization and innovation. If a company is successful, then it can be profitable for other supporting and related industries (Kumar, 2017). In a country, it is very important for a countrys growth as development of one sector affects the growth and success of other sectors. Supporting and related industries refers to the retailers and distributors, research institutes, distribution systems, tools and equipment, raw material suppliers, transportation system and other sectors, which use technology and other required facilities. Related and supporting industry is an essential determinant of national competitive advantage. There are various industries in Ireland, which are related and supporting to banking industry and which have a large impact of its importance. One of the most significant related industries of Bank of Ireland is those, which have assisted the bank to develop the skills and knowledge of labor that have proven meaningful and valuable for the banking industry. In addition to this, Information Technology (IT) industry is the most supporting industry as there are so many IT organizations, which are offering updated technologies and software to operate banking services (Bishnoi, and Devi, 2017). In Ireland, supporting and related sectors are surely contributing to the competitiveness and growth of Bank of Ireland. There are various risky businesses, which rely on traditional banking as they can have difficulties in getting loans and raising funds from public and financial markets. The survival of these risky businesses assures the development of banking industry in Ireland. With the increase in the demand of these risky businesses, there will be growth in the banking services and systems because this is the only source of funding for their business operations. These are the industries, which assist this bank in developing factor conditions in Ireland and gain competitive advantage over other players (Gibson, 2015). Apart from this, there are some other industries in the country such as insurance, venture capital, asset management and credit services. These organizations offer the services, which resemble the banks services. This has an adverse impact on the competitiveness o f Bank of Ireland. The people in country are shifting their interest towards these industries and companies that is reducing the customer base of the banks. To deal with the issues, the banking firms have established alliance and business relationships with the foreign companies (Jussila, Krkkinen and Aramo-Immonen, 2014). It has been purchasing the hardware and software from the foreign IT companies and taking marketing and promotional assistance. Bank of Ireland has adopted effective strategies such as merger, strategic alliance and acquisition. Thus, this factor of Porters Diamond of National Competitive Advantage is equally important to other factors and it is important to develop factor and demand conditions in the country. Conclusion From the above analysis, it can be concluded that Porters Diamond of National Advantage is an important model that analyzes different conditions and factors of a country. It states how the country is profitable for the organizations, which are operating business in this country. According to this theory of Porter, factors of country play a vital role in the growth and success of a company in global market. These factors are depicted in the shape of diamond, so it is known as diamond theory. The above report shows that there are various factors, which determines the national advantage. It is used to evaluate the external environment and marketplace that assist the organizations to determine the related strengths and describe that why some of the industries are competitive and have national advantages. These advantages can be evaluated by four factors such as firms strategy, structure and rivalry, factor conditions, demand conditions and supporting and related industries. These factors interact with each other and assist the firms in enhancing the competitiveness and gaining competitive advantage. The above report describes these four factors in context of Bank of Ireland. From this discussion, it can be stated that competitive advantage is moderate for the Irish Banking industry. A single factor is not sufficient for the growth and success of Bank of Ireland. The country should possess a combination of factors to gain national competitive advantage (Pinto, 2015). The outcomes of the above analysis indicate that business environment of the country is very supportive and can assist the organization in creating a foundation for getting comparative edge. The Irish banking industry has a powerful competitive position. There is a combination of profitable impacts, which have proved effective for the industry and Bank of Ireland. In the case of Bank of Ireland, factor conditions have been significant for the quality and availability of skilled workforce. In many ways, local demand conditions have a positive effect on creating competitive edge of most of the banking firms. Under the strategy, structure and rivalry factor, it can be stated that Bank of Ireland is adopting various effective strategies to deal with the intense competition in the industry (Riasi, 2015). It is making specialization and developing in different market niches that give it a sustainable and competitive market position. Domestic competition has positive impact on the competitiveness of banking companies in Ireland. In addition to these factors, there are some supporting and related industries, which have assisted banking organizations in developing skills and knowledge of labor in this industry. IT industry plays a vital role in the growth of Irish banking industry. Combination of these factors is beneficial for the organizations growth in a country. Thus, Ireland is a favorable country for the growth and success of banking firms and offering various regional advantages to Bank of Ireland. References Acs, Z.J., Audretsch, D.B., Lehmann, E.E. and Licht, G., 2017. National systems of innovation.The Journal of Technology Transfer,42, 997-1008. Bank of Ireland, 2018, Bank of Ireland - For small steps, for big steps, for life, Available from https://www.bankofireland.com/ on 12 March 2018. Baptista, G. and Oliveira, T., 2015. Understanding mobile banking: The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology combined with cultural moderators.Computers in Human Behavior,50, 418-430. Barbosa, K., de Paula Rocha, B. and Salazar, F., 2015. Assessing competition in the banking industry: A multi-product approach.Journal of Banking Finance,50, 340-362. Barney, J.B., 2014.Gaining and sustaining competitive advantage. UK. Pearson higher ed. Bessis, J., 2015.Risk management in banking. US. John Wiley Sons. Bishnoi, T.R. and Devi, S., 2017. Information Technology in Banking System. InBanking Reforms in India, UK. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Byun, J.W., Lee, S.S. and Kim, S.S., 2016. The convergence of IP and financial sectors: Analysis of the national competitiveness by using Diamond model approach.Journal of Digital Convergence,14, 227-234. Cassidy, J., Barry, F. and Egeraat, C.V., 2009, Ireland Industrial Competitiveness in a Small Open Economy, National Institute for Regional and Spatial Analysis, 44, 1-49. Cullen, M., 2015, What Makes Dublin The Second Home Of SaaS? Available from https://www.dublinglobe.com/community/opinion/what-makes-dublin-the-second-home-of-saas on 12 March 2018. Fainshmidt, S., Smith, A., and Judge, W. Q., 2016, National Competitiveness and Porter's Diamond Model: The Role of MNE Penetration and Governance Quality, Global Strategy Journal,6, 81-104. Floyd, D., Ardley, B., Summan, S., Rahman, M. and Vortelinos, D., 2016. Should we be worried about the increasing foreign ownership of UK industries?.Theoretical Economic Letters,6, 178-185. Gianiodis, P.T., Ettlie, J.E. and Urbina, J.J., 2014. Open service innovation in the global banking industry: Inside-out versus outside-in strategies.The Academy of Management Perspectives,28, 76-91. Gibson, J., 2015, The Impact FinTech is having on the Financial Services Industry in Ireland, available from https://esource.dbs.ie/bitstream/handle/10788/2906/mba_gibson_j_2015.pdf?sequence=1isAllowed=y on 12 March 2018. Hallissey, N., 2016, Interconnectedness of the Irish banking sector with the global financial system, Quarterly Bulletin. International Trade Administration, 2018, Ireland - Banking Systems, Available from https://www.export.gov/article?id=Ireland-Banking-Systems on 12 March 2018. Jussila, J.J., Krkkinen, H. and Aramo-Immonen, H., 2014. Social media utilization in business-to-business relationships of technology industry firms.Computers in Human Behavior,30, 606-613. Kelly, R., Brien, E.O. and Stuart, R., 2015. A long-run survival analysis of corporate liquidations in Ireland.Small Business Economics,44, 671-683. Kharub, M. and Sharma, R., 2017. Comparative analyses of competitive advantage using Porter diamond model. Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal,27, 132-160. Kumar, A., 2017. Information Technology Industry.Journal of Management Science, Operations Strategies, 1, 12-15. Lazzarini, S.G., 2015. Strategizing by the government: Can industrial policy create firm?level competitive advantage?.Strategic Management Journal,36, 97-112. Pinto, J.K., 2015.Project management: achieving competitive advantage. US, Prentice Hall. Riasi, A., 2015, Competitive Advantages of Shadow Banking Industry: An Analysis Using Porter Diamond Model, Business Management and Strategy, 6, 15-27. Wagner III, J.A. and Hollenbeck, J.R., 2014.Organizational behavior: Securing competitive advantage. UK, Routledge.
Friday, April 17, 2020
An examination of the writing and contribution to literature made by Southern Catholic American author, Flannery OConnor. The paper shows that Flannery OConnor has been acclaimed as well as criticized for merging comedy with brutality and tragedy through her literary work. Although her literary legacy is comprised of only 31 tales, 2 novels and a few letters and speeches, what has distinguished her from other writers is her ability to promote the Souths identity and provoke examination of Christian dogma. This paper answers her critics and illustrates her substantial contribution to literature, particularly Christian literature. Her work also concentrated on the degenerating South and its condemned citizens (http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/flannery.html, 1). OConnor believed that the essence of the South is derived from a fount of faith and attributes absorbed from the scriptures and from her own history of defeat and violation: a distrust of the abstract, a sense of human dependence on the grace of God, and a knowledge that evil is not simply a problem to be solved, but a mystery to be endured. We will write a custom essay sample on The Importance of Flannery OConnors Writing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page OConnor wished to portray the dualism involved in comparisons of grace and nature, the human and the God-like, the corporeal world and Heaven, the spirit/soul and the body all competing components of Southern religion (Collum, 1995, 1). She presented a different perspective on Catholicism and the South, that no other writer had conveyed previously and which many writers afterwards sought to follow.
Friday, March 13, 2020
Language essays Humans and animals alike utilize language as a tool for survival. Animals and insects communicate with each other through closed communications. Grey-leg geese perform a ritualistic dance before mating, tropical perch contend in duels and the loser would display stripes to admit defeat, ants leave trails of different odors while foraging for food, honeybees dispatch directions of pollen by performing a dance. Each gesture has a specific connotation; however, no matter how many messages or calls an animal may have in its repertoire, each gesture is mutually exclusive. Animals generally cannot combine parts of two gestures to form new meanings; this type of communication is thereby categorized as closed. Humans, however, can continually express new meaning without having to create new sounds. By using different combinations and arrangements of phonemes and morphemes, syntax allows us to produce an infinite number of meanings without having to create new sounds. It also enables u s to understand and utter sentences that we have never heard before. This malleable trait of the human language made scientists consider it an open communication. The complexity of the human language would not have been possible without certain biological conditions, such as a mouth-and-throat structure that can create a wide range of sounds. And equally important is a brain that is capable of making associations amongst various sources of information, and to translate them quickly enough to maintain communication. Children in all cultures acquire language in the same sequence as they mature. Within the first ten months, an infant learns the patterning of sound in social interaction, allowing them to babble in the sound of their culture. By two years, the child is able to dispatch messages in 1- and 2-word utterances, forming simple versions of the adult language. The childs vocabulary grow ...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Arranging Payments for the Price of Goods Bought in an International Sale is by the Use of a Documentary Credit - Essay Example 1.1 Definition and Description of Credit Documents a. Documentary Credits For international transactions, buyers and sellers approach their banks, which will in turn undertake a written agreement for the buyer that promises to pay a certain currency value in favor of the seller on the condition that all the requirements known as terms and conditions are met. Evidence of goods delivered by the seller should be in the form of documents defined in the agreements. The buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s bank communicates and deals directly 24 Alejandro Jara and Patrick Low, et. al., World Trade Report 2011. World Trade Organization. p. 24. with the sellerÃ¢â¬â¢s bank. A credit line is assured by the banks prior to release of goods from the seller. Payments are actually made only after documents are received by the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s bank. Therefore documents such as Letters of Credit are very important for international transactions. Documentary credits may be standard or special depending on what will meet th e needs of the transacting partiesÃ¢â¬âbuyer, seller, bank of the buyer, and bank of the seller. Ã¢â¬Å"Standard documentary credits can be either revocable (may be cancelled by the buyer), or irrevocableÃ¢â¬ ¦confirmed (a second bank, in addition to the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s bank, guarantees payment) or unconfirmed (payment guaranteed only by the issuing bank).Ã¢â¬ 17 Protection by documentary credits does not include an assurance that the goods are shipped according to understanding. Disagreements can result out of dissatisfaction. Complaints may arise. But the buyer and seller would have to settle the problem on their own. Banks base their decisions on just the documents and the terms and conditions therein. Those documents identify four parties, namely, Ã¢â¬Å"applicant, beneficiary, issuing bank, and advising bankÃ¢â¬ although in the business community, they are known as the Ã¢â¬Å"buyer, seller, buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s bank and sellerÃ¢â¬â¢s bankÃ¢â¬ .18 The International Chamber of Commerce had already prepared the Uniform Customs and 17 Edward G. Hinkelman, A Short Course in International Payments: How to Use Letters of Credit, D/P and D/A, Prepayment, Credit, and Cyber Payments in International Transactions. California, USA, World Trade Press, 2003, p. 50. 18 Hinkelman, A Short Course in International Payments: How to Use Letters of Credit, D/P and D/A, Prepayment, Credit, and Cyber Payments in International Transactions. p. 52. Practice (UCP) for Documentary Credits. The UCP recognizes that there are different types of documentary credits, namely, Standby Credits, Revolving Credits, Transferrable Credits, back-to-back credits, revocable and irrevocable, confirmed and unconfirmed. And the definition of documentary credits according to UCP is any arrangement, however named or described, whereby a bank (the issuing bank) acting at the request and in accordance with the instructions of a customer (the applicant for the credit) (i) is to make payment to or t o the order of a third party (the beneficiary) or is to pay or accept or negotiate bills of exchange (drafts) drawn by the beneficiary or (ii) authorises another bank to effect such payment, or to pay, accept or negotiate such bills of exchange against stipulated documents, provided that the terms and conditions of the credit are complied with (Art. 2).4 However, Dr. Zsuzsanna Toth identified documentary credi